Digitally designed and built projects: Explore new ways of construction using technology
It is now clear that technology has taken over almost every aspect of our lives. It has changed the way we communicate, how we connect, how we work and learn, and even changed our buying and eating habits. Architecture and building were no exception, and technology is as present today as it is thought, designed and built.
Using digital tools in the built environment has a wide variety of uses and results. In this selection we consider projects where technology has played a large role, from the conception of the project to the design of each of its elements, to the construction and the result. These prototypes are also examples of in-depth research to optimize time and costs, and minimize the waste associated with traditional construction processes.
Digital manufacturing, robotics, augmented reality manufacturing interface, 3D printing and scanning, and diverse software are used to optimize processes, but also to keep an eye on the maintenance of certain craftsmanship, design elements, and aesthetics for high-quality architectural spaces that the interference from architects and designers also give input throughout the process.
“In order to meet the challenges of the limited mobility and dexterity of existing industrial robots, the project is reintroducing craftsmen into a digital manufacturing process. A direct link to the digital design model can be established through the visual guidance of bricklayers with bespoke digital information via a custom augmented reality user interface. “
The developed augmented bricklaying process combines the power of computer design with the skill and abilities of a human craftsman and introduces a completely new manufacturing paradigm.
Dipl.-Ing. Engineer no. Christoph Zechmeister, Research Associate at the ICD: “The BUGA fiber pavilion consists of 150,000 m of specifically arranged glass and carbon fibers. In view of the complex geometric behavior of fiber structures, established design and modeling methods are not sufficient to thoroughly navigate the design space opened up by fiber systems, data-driven design is typically based on established building systems and associated data sets, does not fully exploit the generative potential of digital technologies and fails to achieve the to cope with the complex interrelationships of a multi-layer fiber optic system. “
Instead of using a linear tool chain, we would like to simultaneously develop architectural design, structural engineering and robotic manufacturing in order to establish a co-design methodology based on continuous computational feedback. The use of an integrative approach across different areas unlocks the full potential of the calculation and enables simultaneous innovation in all areas involved.
“This co-design approach is taken into account in all project phases. The first digital design sketches are based on immediate feedback in advance and are linked to the first structural simulations and informed by physical hand models in order to gain knowledge from structural planning and production.The digital model encapsulates all this feedback and information in the construction environment and enables us to directly interact with different disciplines without having to repeat sets of drawings or models. For example, we can generate tool paths for robot production or data sets for structural analysis generate directly from the design model. ”
MSc. ITECH Hans Jakob Wagner, Research Associate at the ICD: “Written in C-Sharp in the environment of the Grasshopper3D plug-in for Rhinoceros, the agent-based modeling tools enable the algorithmic morphogenesis of spatial form. While the automatic generation of three-dimensional geometries and their embedded logics for materialization allows for a more nuanced articulation of the pavilion’s structural tectonics, it was crucial to implement smooth modes of direct interaction between the designer and these computer tools. This means that the emerging intelligence of an embedded and distributed agent-based modeling system has been coupled with the intuitive design decisions of the planning team.
Due to the universal validity and well-defined taxonomy of programming languages, the computer system is practically indifferent to disciplines and hierarchies. This means that once such an artificial system is accessible to human designers, it promotes smoother and more direct collaboration between architects, engineers, builders and building robotics specialists. Such an approach is crucial for the intrinsic embedding of both sustainable and cultural aspects in an increasingly digitized world. Ultimately, we believe this will lead to a more inclusive and integrated architectural design paradigm that we call co-design. “
Konrad Graser, Ph.D. Research assistant in the NCCR Digital Fabrication: “The design intent was to develop an architectural language that expresses the creation process. Therefore, the design possibilities as well as the limitations of each IO technology were used as design input from the earliest conceptual design phase. This triggered an interactive design process in which certain architecture / planning information (e.g. room or building envelope boundaries, structural constraints) were used as input for the IO generative tools and the result of the generative process was fed back into the master model and the basis In addition, some of the generative tools have been modified to allow design changes by the architecture team and provide real-time feedback on constructibility. “
DFAB HOUSE is unique in that the first conceptual 3D models were created taking digital manufacturing tools into account. This started a co-creation process in which upscaling, design and engineering of the DFAB technology took place in parallel. This was possible because the demonstration of the new digital manufacturing technologies was a central goal of the project and the design was of course tailored to the technologies.
“We used the MAYA software as per the entity modeling requirements and did the space shape and structure rationality to determine the implementation model. Then through the print path planning and print coding to complete the digital file, and then the digital files drive the robotic 3D printing equipment to concrete the materials layer by layer to build up the curved shape of the Book Cabin.
The booth’s printing uses 2 sets of robotic arm printing systems, one in-situ printing of the building foundation and main structure, another in-situ preprinted arch wall, and a domed roof. Each printing system requires 2 people to operate, a total of 4-5 construction technicians who take part in the construction process. “
This article is part of the ArchDaily topic: Automation in architecture. Every month we delve into a topic in depth in articles, interviews, news and projects. Learn more about our monthly topics. As always, at ArchDaily, we welcome input from our readers; if you want to submit an article or a project, contact us.